WebMD Medical News
Laura J. Martin, MD
Aug. 8, 2011 -- As aspiring football and soccer stars hit the fields for preseason training, there’s new advice on how to keep young athletes safe when exercising in the heat.
New guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) show that heat exhaustion, heat stroke, and other heat-related illnesses are preventable in young athletes much in the same way they are in adults.
Previous research had suggested that children are less effective than adults at regulating body temperature and are at higher risk of heat-related illness. But new research shows that children and adults of comparable fitness levels have similar responses to heat exertion when they are well hydrated.
“Most healthy children and athletes can safely participate in outdoor sports and activities in a wide range of warm to hot weather, but adults sometimes create situations that are potentially dangerous,” researcher Stephen G. Rice, MD, former member of the executive committee of the AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, says in a news release. “Heat illness is entirely preventable if coaches and other adults take some precautions to protect the young athletes.”
Researchers say exertional heat illnesses, such as heat stroke and heat exhaustion, can happen even in moderate heat, but the highest risk occurs when children and adolescents are vigorously active outdoors in hot and humid conditions.
The new guidelines call for parents and other adults in charge of running practices and games on hot, humid days to exercise common sense to keep kids safe against heat-related illness.
“While coaches should make on-the-field decisions to improve safety for a team or event as a whole, individual participants may require more or less concern based on their health status and conditioning,” researcher Michael F. Bergeron, PhD, director of the National Institute for Athletic Health & Performance at Sanford USD Medical Center in Sioux Falls, S.D., says in a news release.
For example, a physically fit, well-hydrated, 12-year-old soccer player who is used to the heat would typically be fine playing on a 95-degree day. But an overweight football player recovering from an illness and running wind sprints at the end of a long day of workouts on the first day of preseason football would be at higher risk even if its only 85 degrees.
Researchers say the biggest change in the guidelines is the recognition that children can tolerate and adapt to exercising in the heat as well as adults of similar fitness levels as long as they are adequately hydrated.
To reduce the risk of heat-related illnesses, the guidelines recommend:
SOURCES:Bergeron, M. Pediatrics, September 2011; vol 128.News release, American Academy of Pediatrics.
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